Airline Transport Pilot Ground School
Transport Pilot Lesson 2: Energy
Management - BRIEFING
In this lesson you'll learn to plan and control your descent from cruise
altitude to reach a specific location at an assigned altitude.
ESTIMATED TIME TO COMPLETE
You should complete all Student, Private, Commercial, and Instrument
lessons before beginning this lesson. Reading the Ground School material
before starting this lesson will help you better understand the skills being
taught and terminology used in the lesson.
The skies have layered clouds and the wind is calm.
ABOUT THE FLIGHT
In this lesson you will become familiar with flying the Boeing 737 from a
cruise altitude to a specific altitude and location. You will start in-flight
at FL280 and fly outbound from the Spokane VOR on the 255 radial starting at
about 90 DME at 300 KIAS. At the WITRO intersection, you will slow the
airplane to 250 knots. At the SWAUK intersection, you will begin a descent to
cross the PAE VOR at 8000 feet within +500 feet. During the descent, you will
be taught how to anticipate the required descent rates and how to monitor
progress during the descent. If you want to complete the approach into KSEA,
you will be allowed to, but you will not be required to fly the approach in
order to complete the lesson; you will receive minimal assistance from your
instructor in this portion of the flight. (This is a good opportunity to
practice your landing skills.)
You can either hand-fly the lesson or use the autopilot for the entire
lesson. This lesson does not teach using the autopilot, so you must bring
those skills to the lesson if you choose to use the autopilot.
KEY COMMANDS TO REMEMBER
None unique to this lesson
You'll be asked to maintain:
- Airspeed within 15 knots as assigned
- Altitude within 300 feet as assigned
- Course within 5 degrees as assigned
- Headings within 10 degrees as assigned
Energy Management - LESSON
by Rod Machado
Imagine sitting on the back of a mean rodeo bull as the gates open and the
audience cheers. You're holding on for dear life, ruing the day you gave up
being a vegetarian. The stakes are high because the big steak you're riding is
in rare form and in a mighty bad mood. After what seems like hours of trying
to steer the steer, you're ejected from the beast and your life saved by rodeo
What does this have to with flying a jet? Without a good understanding of
energy management, you'll probably feel something similar to riding a wild
bull when trying to get a jet down and stopped on a runway. The only thing
missing from this scenario will be the rodeo clowns. Like riding a steer,
controlling a jet means understanding how to manage its energy.
We have covered the fundamental points involved in getting you airborne and
leveled off at cruise altitude. Now you're wondering how you can descend and
be in the right place at the right speed and altitude for landing. When it
comes time to begin the descent, you must complete several important tasks in
order to end up at the right place and at the right time. Prior to actually
beginning the descent, air crews must complete the following:
- Plan when to start the descent.
- Get the ATIS and other information relating to the approach and landing.
- Calculate (or estimate) the landing weight of the aircraft.
- Determine the flap setting and Vref speeds for landing.
- Determine the appropriate landing runway and approach desired.
- Brief the crew on the specifics of the approach.
- Complete the Descent checklist.
Descent planning is not a trivial matter. It requires some expertise—but
we will show you the basics required to get the most enjoyment from your
Flight Simulator experience. So here's the lowdown on getting down.
Aircraft equipped with turbine engines achieve their best performance at
high altitudes where the air is thin and fuel consumption is low. Jets like to
climb high quickly, and remain there for as long as possible. Although it may
be better for the airplane's performance, a steep high-speed descent is not
the most enjoyable experience for passengers. So, alas, we must find a way to
descend from altitude at a more comfortable rate. After all, during the
descent the last thing you want your passengers to do is throw their hands
over their heads like they would on a wild rollercoaster ride, right?
Air crews flying large jets at high altitudes like to descend using the 3:1
principal. That is, for every 3 nautical miles (nm) traveled forward, they
descend 1,000 feet. This rate produces the same 3-degree glide slope you
typically use on final approach. There are two key components to descent
planning: 1) When to start descent, and 2) Which rate of descent to use.
When Do I Start My Descent?
To figure out when you should start down from your cruising altitude, you
need to know the point and the altitude where you'd like to be along your
route. For simple VFR flight, you might want to be at traffic pattern altitude
(1,500 AGL) as you enter the pattern. Commercial airliners often must follow
an IFR Standard Terminal Arrival Route procedure (or STAR—which, by the way,
isn't only used at night) that dictates the altitude and speed at which you
need to be at points along the specified route. For example, a STAR might
request that you descend to cross the 30 DME fix from the ABC VOR at 10,000
feet and maintain 250 knots (I guess we could call this a falling star,
but we won't).
To figure out your starting point, or "Top of Descent," while
following the 3:1 rule, subtract your target altitude from your current
altitude and multiply this answer by three. This will give you the number of
miles from your target that you need to start your descent. Consider the
If we are flying at 8,500 feet and want to be at 1,500 feet at the airport,
calculate your descent point as follows:
||Our starting altitude, in thousands of feet
||Subtract our target altitude, in thousands of feet
||Our altitude to lose, in thousands of feet
||The magic 3:1 multiplier
||Nautical miles from the airport
Here's another simple way to calculate this in your head. Once you know the
altitude you want to lose in the descent, multiply it by three to determine
the miles from the fix you should be. We'll use this during the lesson to
monitor our progress during the descent, which will then tell us if we need to
make adjustments along the way.
According to our STAR instructions example above, if we were cruising at
28,000 feet and needed to be at 10,000 feet 30 miles from the VOR, our
calculations would be as follows:
||Our starting altitude, in thousands of feet
||Our target altitude, in thousands of feet
||Altitude to lose, in thousands of feet
||The magic 3:1 multiplier
||Nautical miles from our destination point
Here comes the fun part of this example (and no rodeo clowns are involved).
We need to begin our descent 54 nm from our target destination point—the 30
DME fix from the ABC VOR. This means we need to add in the additional 30 nm to
this 54 nm figure and start our descent 84 nm (54 nm + 30 DME) from the ABC
You can have a lot of fun calculating descent points and then flying them
to check your assumptions. The next important element of the equation is the
actual rate of descent you use during the descent profile.
What Rate of Descent Will Get Me There?
Using the right rate of descent in feet per minute (fpm) will be the key to
arriving at your target destination at the proper altitude. In order to
maintain our 3:1 descent profile, we can calculate the required rate of
descent by multiplying our estimated ground speed for descent by six.
But how will you know what your ground speed will be in the descent before
you descend? Our profile initial descent speed from altitude will be
approximately 0.74 Mach (or about 400 knots ground speed). So, you can use 400
knots as your initial ground speed during descent and calculate the required
rate of descent by multiplying 400 (knots) by 6 to get 2,400 fpm.
So, in our example above, at 84 nm from the ABC VOR, begin a 2,400 fpm
In cruise, you have been traveling at around 400 knots with N1 set at around
71 percent. For descent, initially reduce your N1 to 60 percent to 62 percent to
keep from over speeding the aircraft.
A very quick way to estimate your descent rate is to consider the following:
|Above 25,000 feet
||300 knots at 2,500 fpm
|Below 15,000 feet
||250 knots at 1,700 fpm
|200 knots at 1,400 fpm
How Fast is Too Fast?
A subtle piece of the equation is speed control. There are two places you
will need to modify your profile to keep within parameters: during descent as
you descend into thicker denser air, and at the level off point where you may
need to start slowing down to meet any assigned speed restriction (for example,
slowing to 250 knots).
Now, it's very important to remember the FAA regulation that limits airspeed
to no more than 250 knots when you are below 10,000 feet. In the lesson, we'll
stay below this airspeed, but it'll be important to remember on your checkride.
As you descend into thicker air, your airspeed unit of measure will change
from a percent of the speed of sound (Mach) back to knots. To prevent a close
shave by flying too fast when it's not appropriate to do so, you can determine
this threshold by noticing the "barber pole"—the red and white
striped pole, or needle, displayed on the upper left side of the airspeed
indicator. This needle marks the "never exceed speed" for the
aircraft. During descent, the barber pole increases toward the needle of the
airspeed indicator and left unattended, will eventually cross paths. Should this
happen, you will have an over-speed condition on your hands as marked by the
"click-clacking" audible warning, which also sounds like the copilot's
chattering teeth because he's quite nervous by now. To avoid this, reduce N1 to
45 percent and maintain 310 to 320 knots during the remainder of your descent.
As you descend from cruise altitude, you will be storing up all kinds of
kinetic energy as you go swooping down at more than 300 knots. All this works
against you as you reach your target point and need to slow down. The solution
is easy. During your descent planning, allow for an additional 5 nm to level off
and slow to your target speed at idle. In our example above, this would mean
beginning your descent at 89 nm from the ABC VOR, arriving at 10,000 feet 35
miles from the VOR. Once leveled at 10,000 feet, reduce power to flight idle and
coast the 5 nm bleeding off speed until you reach 250 knots. At this point,
increase throttles to N1 of 52 to 55 percent and maintain 250 knots.
And now a word of warning from your sponsor--me. If you have been using the
autopilot with autothrottles enabled, you may not slow down in time to meet your
crossing restriction. In the second example above, the autothrottles will get
you slowed to 250 knots, but not by the 30 DME fix. Typically, the autothrottles
can take as much as 7 minutes to slow down. You can cover a large distance in
this amount of time. Without access to the Flight Management System (FMS), the
best way to handle this is to disengage autothrottles as you level at the 5-nm
lead point and set power to flight idle manually. Optionally, you can use a
10-nm lead point to account for the extra time and distance required for
autothrottles to slow down.
Of course, as a last resort, you can always deploy the spoilers (or speed
brakes) by pressing the SLASH (/) key. With careful planning, such as the
above steps, you should be in fine position for your approach and landing
Now you are an energy manager because the 3:1 rule on descent planning is
true for any plane you fly, such as the Cessna Skyhawk and Beechcraft Baron 58,
and at lower altitudes and airspeeds. Perhaps I should now call you the all-being,
master of space, time, and dimension because so few people ever master
energy, much less master it in a Boeing 737. OK, I won't call you that yet. All
I'll say is give this lesson a try and practice the principles you've learned
here. More power to you!
Ok, see you in the cockpit. Click the Fly This Lesson link to practice
what you've just learned.
THIS LESSON IS AVAILABLE IN THE ACTIVE FLIGHT